Sunday, September 2, 2000

|Do You Think Jim Duffus Looks Like Dwight|The Duffus Ceilidh Video|Dwight Duffus|Email|Jeannie Duffus|Links You Will Enjoy|Margaret Doig Letter|Monumental Inscription Lookups|Past Issues|Reference to Chester Stairs Duffus|Retake on Jack Duffus Weiss Ancestors|The Royal House of Moray|

The Duffus Ceilidh Video

Click on image!!

First minute without sound!



Presenting the history and culture of the Celts, people whose culture has influenced European history over 3000 years. Available in English and Welsh.

Ancient Ireland 
Archive for the dissemination of the history of Ireland's Celtic heritage.

Encyclopedia of the Celts 
Searchable encyclopedia of Celtic literature including the legends, mythology, tales and history. It also provides alternate spellings of words and names and pronunciation notes.

Information on the Isle of Iona, site of the monastery founded by St. Columba in 563. Community & travel information, books, news, articles & links to related sites.

St. Dubricius Celtic Studies & Celtic Christianity 
Articles on topics from Welsh poetry to King Arthur, from Celtic saints & hymns to Celtic culture. Links to other Celtic sites.

Stuart's Celtic Christianity Page 
A directory to information on Celtic Christianity, including Web sites, mailing lists, saints, liturgies, booklist and news.

Celtic Archive 
Information on Celtic stories, books, languages, traditions, and deities.

Celtic Culture 
Gives a brief history of the Celtic's. Includes origin, social structure, spirituality, and dress. Links to related material.

Celtic Deities and Myth 
Lists the Deities of Gaul, Wales and Ireland.

Celtic Lore 
Celtic faery tales and history, the history of Witta (Irish Wicca) as well as herb lore, original poetry,and that of the noted Celtic poets.

Celtic Studies Resources 
Offers reading lists, FAQs, and Web resources on Celtic topics with information geared more towards the novice. Books available for purchase through

Celtic Virtual Village 
Celtic Cultural Center, Celtic Association Union, Celtic Christian Research Center, Celtic Language Heritage Institute, village pubs, virtual library & museum.

Kingdoms of the Celts 
Traces the rise and fall of the great Celtic dynasties and their famous kings and queens. Including Vortigern, Boudica, Cartimandua, Arthur, Brian Boru, Rhodri Mawr, Owain Glyn Dwr.

Sacred Fire 
A celebration of ancient Celtic history and lore.

Tir Na Nog 
Offers Irish/Celtic histories, legends, mythology, and archeology of ancient times.

TAMH: Tayside A Maritime History 

The Flying Yankee and Mary Duffus

Julian J. Duffus Poem

Gordonstoun School Expeditions

British History

After Dinner Speakers and Entertainers - George Duffus  

Glossary of Old Diseases

Castle Links

Medieval Music

Photo Gallery - Europa Medievale - Medieval Europe

Evolution of Latin Alphabet Sets - Animation

Old Rattray Records including monumental inscriptions.

The Linen Industry in Blairgowie

Early Dundee Maps

Blairgowrie Tours


provided by Margaret Doig of Dundee Scotland

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Dwight Duffus

Emory University
 Department of Math and Computer Science


Dwight Duffus 

Phone (404) 727-7957 
Office NDB 114 


Ph.D. (1978) University of Calgary
M.Sc. (1976) University of Calgary
B.A.(Hon.) (1974) University of Regina

Research Interests

Ordered combinatorial and algebraic structures

Professional Activities

Editorial board: Order
Referee: Order, Discrete Mathematics, Combinatorica, Proceedings of the AMS, JCT A, JCT B

Recent Papers

Some progress on the Aharoni-Korman conjecture. (with T. Goddard; submitted November 1999) 

Minimum-sized fibres in distributive lattices. (with B. Sands; submitted October 1999) 

An inequality for the sizes of prime filters of finite distributive lattices,
Discrete Math 201 (1999) 89-99 (with B. Sands) 

Biased positional games on hypergraphs, Studia Sci Math Hung 34 (1998)
141-149 (with T. Luczak and V. Rodl) 

Endomorphisms of partially ordered sets, Combinatorics, Probability and
Computing 7 (1998) 33-46 (with T. Luczak, V. Rodl and A. Rucinski)

The complexity of the fixed point property, Order 13 (1996), 209-218 (with T. Goddard)

On the computational complexity of ordered subgraph recognition,
RS&A 7 (1995), 223-268 (with M. Ginn and V. Rodl)

Do You Think Jim Duffus Looks Like Dwight?

(No direct relation)

Monumental Inscription Lookups

(I received an email from the Moray Roots list-serv and thought you might
be interested in case you had monumental inscriptions you would like to lookup.
Please email the person listed!!)

Subject: RE MI`S
Resent-Date: Thu, 17 Aug 2000 03:37:15 -0700
Date: Thu, 17 Aug 2000 12:39:57 +0200
From: Trond Tallerås <>

Hello listers.

During the last months there have been a lot of offers on MI look ups. I have tried to collect them on a list, and if I hit the right button it will appear here:

Abadour Irene Esson 
Aberdour Carol 
Aberlour Ray 
Abernethy Ray 
Aboyne David Jameson Some MIs
Advie Ray 
Alford Irene Esson 
Alvah Cleopas 
Alvie Ray 
Ardesier Pat 
Auchindoir Susan J. Sorensen 
Banchory Ternan David Jameson Some MIs
Belhelvie Maureen Scutt 
Belhelvie Irene Esson 
Bellie George Jamieson 
Bellie Ray 
Birse David Jameson Some MIs
Boleskine Pat 
Boyndie Ray 
Boyndie Cleopas 
Braemar Maureen Scutts 
Chapel Yard Inv.ness Marv & Joan Stevens 
Crathie Maureen Scutt 
Crimond with Rattray Carol 
Cromdale Ray 
Croy&Dalcross Pat 
Cullen Ray 
Culsalmond Cleopas 
Daviot&Dunlichity Pat 
Deskford Cleopas Some but not all MIs
Deskford Ray 
Dipple Ray 
Dores Pat 
Downan Ray 
Drumblade Cleopas 
Drumoak David Jameson Some MIs
Dunbennan Ray 
Dundurcas Ray 
Dunnottar Joan 
Durris David Jameson Some MIs
Duthil Ray 
Echt Trond Tallerås 
Echt David Jameson Some MIs
Essil Ray 
Fetterangus Carol 
Fettercain David Jameson Some MIs
Fetteresso David Jameson Some MIs
Fordyce Cleopas Some but not all MIs
Fordyce Ray 
Forglen Cleopas Some but not all MIs
Forgue Cleopas 
Fyvie Carol 
Fyvie Trond Tallerås 
Gamrie Old Kirkyard Stuart Mitchell 
Glenbervie Cathy Purcell 
Glenbucket David Jameson Some MIs
Glenmuick David Jameson Some MIs
Inch Ray 
Inverallan Ray 
Inveraven Ray 
Inverkeithny Irene Esson 
Inverness&Bona Pat 
Inverness East Marv & Joan Stevens 
Inverness West Marv & Joan Stevens 
Kincardine Ray 
Kincardine O`Neil Heather Hurley 
Kingussie Ray 
Knockando Ray 
Laggan Ray 
Lagganallachie Marv & Joan Stevens 
Lochaber & Skye Marv & Joan Stevens 
Lochiel Cushnie David Jameson Some MIs
Logie Coldstone David Jameson Some MIs
Lonmay Carol 
Lumphanan David Jameson Some MIs
Marnoch Cleopas 
McAllan Ray 
Midmar David Jameson Some MIs
Monymusk Trond Tallerås 
Monymusk David Jameson Some MIs
Moy&Dalarossie Pat 
New Deer Carol 
New Deer Maureen Scutt 
New Deer Irene Esson 
Newhills Heather Hurley 
Newhills Maureen Scutt 
Old Alloway Kirk Heather Hurley 
Oldmeldrum Heather Hurley 
Oldmeldrum Maureen Scutt 
Oyne Ann Ledingham Moxley 
Ordiquhill Ray 
Petty Pat 
Rathen Carol 
Rathen Joan 
Rayne Ann Ledingham Moxley 
Rhynie Trond Tallerås 
Rothes Ray 
Rothiemurchus Ray 
Speymouth area George Jamieson 
Speyside Maureen Scutts 
Speyside Marv & Joan Stevens 
St.Peter`s (Peterculter) Lisa Elliot 
Strachan David Jameson 
Tynet Ray 
Tyrie Carol 
Tyrie Irene Esson 
Udny Maureen Scutt 
Upper Deeside Maureen Scutts 

Yes, it happened - lucky me. Hope it will be of some help to someone.

All the best to all of you from Geilo, Norway.


The Royal House of Moray

736 AD to 1215 AD

The history of Scotland as a unified kingdom begins with the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin (circa 834 to 858). Kenneth may have succeeded to the throne of the Picts through his mother, as the Picts followed the custom of matrilinear succession to kingship. At any rate, he made good his claim by conquering the Picts, becoming the first King of Scots. From Kenneth MacAlpin are descended all the Kings of Scotland, save for the interlude of Macbeth and Lulach, as we shall see. 

Sometime in the century after the reign of Kenneth, the branch of the Tribe of Loarn headed by Ruadri moved into the province of Moray. Moray is the land south of the Moray Firth, around the present-day town of Elgin. The leader of the Moraymen was called a mormaer, which is a Celtic title equivalent to the Anglo-Scandinavian earl, which we use today. 

The descent of the MacKays through the mormaers of Moray begins as follows: Ruadri was the son of Aircellach, king of Dalriada; this Ruadri had a son Cathmail, who had a son Donald, who had a son Morgan, who had a son Donald, who had a son
Ruadri. 5

This latter Ruadri had three sons: Findlaech, Maelbrigte, and Donald. It is Donald who is believed to be the male ancestor of what was to become the Clan MacKay. The only evidence concerning Donald which we have is an addition to the mediæval Book of Deer. In it, we find written the following: "Donald, Ruadri's son, and Malcolm, Culen's son, gave Biffie to God and to Drostan." 6 What this means is that Donald gave title to land over to the Abbey of Deer, along with the younger son of Culen, the King of Scots from 967 to 971. This incident is referred to in Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, where the author notes "Malcolm, co-benefactor with Donald MacRuadri of Moray of the Abbey of Deer ca [around] 1000."

Concerning the brothers of Donald there can be found more information. Findlaech was the father of Macbeth, who became King of Scots. Maelbrigte was the father of  Malcolm and Gillacomgain. Up until 1020, it seems that Findlaech was mormaer of Moray. In that year, the following event is noted in the Tigernach Annals: "Findlaech, Ruadri's son, mormaer of Moray, was slain by the sons of his brother Maelbrigte."8 Malcolm, eldest of the sons of Maelbrigte, succeeded to the title of the uncle whom he had murdered, but he subsequently was killed in 1029. Gillacomgain then became mormaer of Moray. Gillacomgain made a very
advantageous alliance when he married Gruoch, grand-daughter of Kenneth III, the King of Scots from 997 to 1005. This advanced the claim of the House of Moray to the throne of Scotland. Gillacomgain and Gruoch had a son, Lulach. The mormaer
himself did not long enjoy this heightened influence, for in 1032, the following befell him: "Gillacomgain, Maelbrigte's son, the mormaer of Moray, was burned, along with fifty of his men."

The mormaership then passed to Macbeth, cousin of Gillacomgain and son of Findlaech. Macbeth quickly strengthened his rule by marrying the widow of Gillacomgain, Gruoch, in that same year, 1032. But Macbeth aspired to greater things than the leadership of the Moraymen. He became a commander in the army of Duncan I, King of Scots from 1034 to 1040. What happened next differs in the accounts put forward by the supporters of Macbeth, or by the supporters of Duncan. The ultimately victorious Duncan camp has largely succeeded in putting over the view that Macbeth murdered Duncan in an infamous act of betrayal, at
Bothnagowan (which is now called Pitgaveny) near Elgin, on the 14th of August, 1040.10 After Duncan's death, though, Macbeth ruled Scotland for seventeen years, a fact which shows that he had widespread support, and was an able king. His position was so secure, that the Annals show he made a pilgrimage to Rome, where he distributed alms to the poor. Macbeth may have gained legitimacy through his wife Gruoch, the grand­daughter of Kenneth III, but he also had pretensions in his own right. He was the mormaer of Moray, a House which claimed the throne of Scotland by the Celtic law of tanistry. His mother may have been Donada, the second daughter of Malcolm II, King of Scots from 1005 to 1034. 11 If this was the case, then Macbeth's claim was on a par with Duncan I's, who was the son of Bethoc, eldest daughter of Malcolm II. In any event, the interlude of the House of
Moray on the throne of Scotland was not to last long. The son of Duncan I, Malcolm Canmore, took revenge for the murder of his father, and slew Macbeth in battle at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, on the 15th of August, 1057.12 Macbeth was buried on Iona, alongside the Kings of Scots and Dalriada. 

The Moraymen did not give up their claim to the throne, or cease from pressing it. They put forward Lulach, the son of Macbeth's wife Gruoch by her first husband Gillacomgain, setting him upon the Stone of Destiny at Scone, and proclaiming him king in 1057. The tide was against them, though, and the reign of Lulach was a brief one. We find Lulach referred to as "The Simple" --- again, by the victors in this struggle, so he may only have been ill-fated. Once again, Malcolm Canmore revenged himself upon the House of Moray, and killed Lulach in battle at Essie in Strathbogie on the 17th of March, 1058. 13 Lulach had reigned for a mere seven months. Malcolm Canmore became Malcolm III, King of Scots, and the House of Moray was never again to lead the Scottish kingdom. 

The fight continued, though, in various guises, for almost two hundred years. Lulach had two children: a son, Maelsnectan, and a daughter. Maelsnectan became mormaer of Moray on the death of his father in 1058, and must have continued the rebellion against Malcolm III, for we find that in 1078 he was expelled from his mormaership by the king. Maelsnectan subsequently became a monk, and died in 1085. The daughter of Lulach married Aedh, and it is with this Aedh that the male descent of the MacKays continues. 

As in the case of Donald, Ruadri's son, there is scant evidence concerning Aedh. The Reverend Angus MacKay, in his invaluable work, The Book of MacKay, has this to say about Aedh: 

The next Earl* of Moray was Aed, who married the daughter of Lulach. Little is known of Aed. He is identified as the Earl Aed who witnessed charters by King David I, son of Malcolm III. Whatever he may have been during the chequered years which immediately followed the death of Canmore [in 1093] the fact that he witnessed royal charters later on may indicate that he lived at peace with King David. He also appears to have become Earl of Moray in virtue of his marriage with Lulach's daughter, and may have sprung from a collateral noble family of Moray.14 

* about this time the old Gaelic title Mormaer was replaced by the Saxon title Earl 
 Rev. MacKay's speculation in this last sentence is borne out by Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, which has the following entry for the issue of Lulach: "A dau[ghter], m[arried] Aedh (or Heth), Mormaer of Moray in 1078, possibly great-grandson of Donald, yst [youngest] son of Ruadri, Mormaer of Moray." 15 In the lack of contrary evidence, Table 3 shows Aedh as the great-grandson of Donald. Aedh became mormaer, or Earl, in 1078, when Maelsnectan was expelled; in that same year he married the daughter of Lulach, who was Maelsnectan's sister. If he signed charters of David I, then Aedh must have remained Earl until after 1124. 

Aedh had three children: two sons, Angus and Malcolm, and a daughter, Gruaidh. Angus was Earl of Moray after his father. He revived the Moray claim to the throne, and raised an army against King David I in the year 1130. At the time, the king was absent at the English court, and the safety of the kingdom was in the hands of his constable, Edward, the son of Earl Siward. Battle was joined at Stracathro in Forfarshire, and the Moraymen were defeated by the royal army. Angus, the Earl, was slain, along with 4000 of his men. The title passed to his brother, Malcolm, who carried on with the struggle. 

Malcolm was known as MacEth; "Eth" or "Heth" is the equivalent of the Gaelic "Aedh": Malcolm's father. After the defeat in 1130, Malcolm MacEth fled to the Western Isles of Scotland, where his cause was taken up by Somerled, the powerful Regulus of Argyll (later to become Lord of the Isles). Malcolm married Somerled's sister, and the two men raised an army to press the Moray claim to the throne. To resist this force, King David called for help from the English barons of the border district. The threat of this army advancing northwards proved sufficient to thwart the Moraymen, and Malcolm MacEth was betrayed into the hands of King David by his own adherents in 1134. For the next twenty-three years, Malcolm was imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle.

The daughter of Aedh, Gruaidh, married William, the only son of Duncan II, King of Scots in 1094. The Earldom of Moray was forfeited by Malcolm MacEth when he was imprisoned in 1134, and King David I bestowed it upon his half-nephew William. If he hoped by this measure to end the rebellion of the Moraymen, he was quickly proved wrong, for the children of William showed that their loyalty lay with their mother's House, and they took part in the coming rebellions alongside the son and grandson of Malcolm MacEth. 

The male descent of the MacKays follows Malcolm MacEth and his descendants. Malcolm MacEth had a son named Donald, who found himself head of the Moraymen when his father was imprisoned in 1134. Donald MacEth retained the support of his uncle, Somerled, and together they fought the royal forces until 1156. In that year, King Malcolm IV, who reigned from 1153 to 1165, decided to recognise the conquests which Somerled had made, amongst which was the Isle of Man. Somerled, in turn, showed how little the claims of his nephew meant to him by handing him over to King Malcolm. Donald MacEth was captured at Whithorn, and was sent to join his father in Roxburgh Castle. No more is recorded of Donald MacEth, and presumably he died in prison. His father, though, was released the following year, in 1157, and given the Earldom of Ross, a lesser title than that of
Moray. Malcolm MacEth did not stay long in the favour of King Malcolm IV, for the records show he was recaptured in 1160 and blinded.16 The unfortunate Earl Malcolm died in prison on the 23rd of October, 1168,17 having spent thirty years of his life as a prisoner. 

Beginning in 1160, Malcolm IV and his brother and successor William the Lion expelled the Moraymen from the province of Moray. Most of them fled over the mountains of Ross, north into Strathnaver. From this group came the Clan MacKay. These exiles were befriended in Strathnaver by Harold, the Norse Earl of Caithness. The wife of Harold was Gormlath, who was the daughter of Malcolm MacEth. She was a staunch enemy of the Scottish king who had imprisoned her father and brother, and she helped to carry on the rebellion in the far north of Scotland. 

The last member of the Royal House of Moray to press his family's claim to the throne of Scotland was Kenneth MacEth. Kenneth was a grandson of Malcolm MacEth,18 and so he was a son or nephew of Donald MacEth. By this time, though, the line of MacEth was not powerful enough to even lead the dispossessed Moraymen. That honour went to Donald Ban Macwilliam, a grandson of Gruaidh, Aedh's daughter. The King of Scots, Alexander II, who reigned from 1214 to 1249, sent an army under Ferquhard Macintagart to fight the Moraymen. To this Ferquhard had gone the title of Earl of Ross, when it was taken from Malcolm MacEth upon his recapture in 1160. The royal army defeated the last rebellion of the Moraymen in 1215. Both the commander, Donald Ban Macwilliam, and Kenneth MacEth were killed in battle. 

At one time, the mormaers of Moray were effectively independent princes in their province. Two centuries of rebellion, though, against the royal house of Kenneth MacAlpin's descendants, had destroyed their power. The Earldom of Moray was lost in 1134, and even the minor fief of Ross was taken away in 1160. By 1215, the House of Moray was both exiled and defeated. Once the hopeless dream of kingship was given up, though, the descendants of Aedh began to thrive in their new home of Strathnaver. 

To summarise the descent of the MacKays from the time of Ruadri: as we have seen, Ruadri was the mormaer of Moray; he had a son Donald, the co-benefactor of the Abbey of Deer around 1000; Donald had a great­grandson Aedh, who married the daughter of Lulach, King of Scots, and became mormaer of Moray in 1078; Aedh had a son Malcolm MacEth, who became Earl of Moray on the death of his brother Angus in 1130, was imprisoned and deprived of Moray in 1134, released and given the Earldom of Ross in 1157, recaptured and deprived of Ross in 1160, and died in 1168; Malcolm MacEth had a son Donald MacEth, who led the Moraymen after his father's capture in 1134, and himself was imprisoned in 1156. Donald had a son, or perhaps nephew, Kenneth MacEth, who was killed in battle in 1215. Table 3 gives the genealogy of the House of Moray. Appendix A is the pedigree of the Kings of Scots from 858 to 1249. 

5.  From the genealogies in the Books of Leinster, Ballymote and Leccan, as quoted in William F. Skene, Celtic Scotland: A History of Ancient Alban, v. III, (Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1890). p. 476. 

6. Book of Deer, pp. 91-95, as quoted in Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, vol. II, p. 176. 

7. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, (London: Burke's Peerage Limited, 1973). p. 312. 

8, Tigernach Annals, year 1020, as quoted in Anderson, Early Sources. 

9 Annals of Ulster, vol. I, p. 564 sub anno 1032, as quoted in Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, vol. I, p. 571. 

10 Sir Archibald H. Dunbar, Scottish Kings: A Revised Chronology of Scottish History. (Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1899). 

11 Ibid. 

12 Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, p. 313. 
13 Ibid. 

14 Rev. Angus MacKay, The Book of MacKay. (Edinburgh: Norman MacLeod, 1906). pp. 21-22. 

15 Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, p. 313. 

16 MacKay, The Book of MacKay. 

17 Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, p. 313. 

18 MacKay, The Book of MacKay. 

Table 3
The Royal House of Moray

circa 736
mormaer of Moray
| | |
Findlaech Maelbrigte Donald
mormaer of Moray | circa 1000
murdered 1020 --------------- |
| | | |
| Malcolm | |
| mormaer of Moray 1020 | |
| killed 1029 | |
| | ?
| 2nd 1st | |
Macbeth = Gruoch = Gillacomgain |
mormaer of Moray 1032 | mormaer of Moray 1029 |
King of Scots 1040 | killed 1032 |
killed 1057 | |
Lulach ?
King of Scots 1057 |
killed 1058 |
| |
------------------------ |
| | 1078 |
Maelsnectan daughter = Aedh
mormaer of Moray 1058-78 Earl of Moray 1078
died 1085 |
| | |
Angus Malcolm MacEth William = Gruaidh
Earl of Moray Earl of Moray 1130-34 Earl of Moray
killed 1130 Earl of Ross 1157-60 |
died 1168 |
| |
=================------ -------------+---------------
| | | | |
Donald MacEth Harold = Gormlath Donald Gosptrick William
| Earl of Caithness Macwilliam Lord of Airton Lord of Egremont
| | killed 1187 died 1208
| | |
| | |-----------------------------
| | | | |
Kenneth MacEth John Haroldson Godfrey Donald Ban daughter
killed 1215 died 1231 Macwilliam Macwilliam |
executed 1213 killed 1215 |
Gillespie Macewen executed 1228

Extracted from:


Reference to Chester Stairs Duffus - 
World War I Flying Ace



chesterduffus3.jpg (10100 bytes)

(Motto of 25 Squadron RAF) 

This is a story of two young men who spent three months of their lives together. They were born on different continents. One was the son of a soldier, brought up in a family of 10 children; the other was from a comfortable background. One survived and lived a long life. The other died young and never went home. Their paths crossed in the final year of the First World War. By the time they met they were both experienced and effective officers. 

Archibald Roy Watts joined the Queens Own Cameron Highlanders as a boy of 15 in 1906. His father was a career soldier who served for nearly 30 years. He followed his two elder brothers into the Regiment. His younger brother followed him in turn. 

At the outbreak of war in 1914 his battalion was serving in India. They quickly returned and by December they were in France, moving up to Ypres later in the month. He was wounded in January 1915 and returned to the UK. By April he was back in Ypres. He fought at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, where he was wounded again. His battalion was reduced to four officers and 200 men. He fought
at the Somme. He took part in the attack on High Wood, in which one company of his battalion was reduced to 12 men. In December 1916 he was commissioned. He fought at Arras, where he was awarded the Military Cross. His battalion lost 412 casualties. He fought at Passchendaele, where his battalion lost 296 men. By the end of 1917 he had seen a lot of his friends and colleagues killed or wounded. It was time to find a different kind of war. 

Bryant Luttelus (Bob) Lindley was the son of James Bryant Lindley CMG and Mrs Mary Lindley of Barkly House, Claremont, Cape Province, South Africa. His father was the general manager of the Equitable Life Assurance Company in South Africa who listed his pastimes in "Who's Who" as "hunting, shooting, fishing" and who had trained and practised as a lawyer in the United States before returning home to South Africa. His mother was American, the daughter of Henry Sheldon Leavitt of New York. 

Bob Lindley's background was one of privilege and comfort, with close family ties with the Turf Club and the Western Province and Cape Town Cricket Clubs. He was educated at St Andrews College. He enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps on the 11th April 1917. His family were intensely proud of him. He wrote to them regularly, telling them of his life in Europe. 

The two men were to meet at the beginning of April 1918, on the formation of the Royal Air Force. They were members of "A" Flight, 25 Squadron RAF. The squadron had been formed in September 1915 and originally equipped with FE 2b fighters. On the 16th June 1916 one of its members shot down the German ace Max Immelmann. In the summer of 1917 it was re-equipped with DH 4's and assumed its
role of high altitude bombing and reconnaissance missions in Northern France and Belgium. 

During the German Spring offensive of 1918 the squadron had engaged in low-level attacks against infantry and artillery, but the DH 4 was not really suited for this. It is probably a mark of the desperate measures of these times that they assumed this role. In any event 25 Squadron moved its base on no less than three occasions during March 1918, from Serny to Villers-Bretttoneux, to Beauvois and then finally
to Ruisseauville, where it was to remain until October 1918. 

The commanding officer of the 25 Squadron was Major Chester Duffus. He was a Canadian, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He had a distinguished record, having served with 22 Squadron, flying FE 2b's. He had shot down five enemy aircraft. In 1916 he had been awarded the Military Cross. He was 26 years old. 

By April 1918 Lieutenant Lindley was an experienced pilot with many hours flying DH 4's.The aircraft had been first introduced on the Western Front in March 1917. It was specifically designed for daytime bombing and then extended its role to include long range reconnaissance. It was fitted with a 375hp Rolls Royce Eagle engine, which gave it a maximum airspeed of 143 mph. Its loaded weight was 3472 lb. It could carry two 230lb or four 112lb bombs. The Observer operated a ring mounted Lewis gun and the pilot a forward firing synchronised Vickers machine gun mounted on the frame. The one major operational draw back was the siting of the 500-gallon fuel tank between the observer and the pilot, which not only made communication difficult but also provided a tempting point of fire for enemy aircraft. 

"The experienced pilot and the professional soldier flew together on the morning of 25th April 1918, a reconnaissance raid. 17 exposures were taken. The weather was poor and the flight was long, some 4 hours and 10 minutes. They were obliged to land at Flexenghem to refuel, and returned to base in very low mist. Lieutenant Watts would later recall his frantic attempts to attract his pilot's attention whilst looking for a suitable place to put down the aircraft.

    Lieutenant Watts, Observer and unknown pilot, 25 Squadron, 1918

The next flights together were on 3rd and 4th May. The latter was a photographic reconnaissance, during which they encountered heavy anti-aircraft fire and were attacked by 7 enemy aircraft, one of which was forced down. This was the beginning of their formation as a team. They were to fly together on a further 35 occasions by the 22nd June. On the 8th May they took part in a bombing raid on Le Cateau. Further bombing raids were carried out on Peronne on 10th May (when no photographs were taken because of camera jam), Tournai 0n the 15th May, Sulnoye on 20th and 31st May, Mouchin Aerodrome on the 23rd May and a dump at Varsennaere on the 25th May. 

The remaining days of the month were far from idle. During a photographic recon- naissance sortie on 4th May, they encountered anti-aircraft fire and were attacked by 7 enemy aircraft. Again on 16th May 4 enemy aircraft attacked them. Laconically Lieutenant Watts' log reports " returned; gun broken". 

Over the next 31 days Lieutenant Watts made 29 flights. 27 were with Lieutenant Lindley and of those 21 were operational sorties. A total of 66 hours 10 minutes flying time is recorded in Lieutenant Watts' log, of which only 8 hours and 35 minutes were non-combat flying. 

June 1918 started well for Lindley and Watts. Lindley was awarded the Military Cross. The citation reads "for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in recent operations. He carried out several very successful long-distance reconnaissances and bomb raids under adverse weather conditions and during low bombing and machine gun actions he did most brilliant work. Throughout he showed great gallan- try
and skill". 

He and Lieutenant Watts were able to demonstrate this gallantry and skill again during a particular raid, which took place on 2nd June. The target was a Chateau at Trelon, due north of Hirson, close to the Belgian border. Of equal interest to the attackers was a train, which was in a private railway siding next to the chateau. This was believed to be the German Imperial Train. The attack could have been a concerted attempt to assassinate the Kaiser. 

At 4.50 a.m. 12 aircraft, including "A" flight's machine "D" piloted by Lieutenant Lindley with Lieutenant Watts as his Observer, took off from the squadron aerodrome at Ruisseauville. The squadron commander, Major Duffus, led the formation. Flying in single file they arrived over the objective at 5.25a.m. Descending from a clear sky they attacked and bombed at a height of 500 feet. Their arrival seems to have been a complete surprise to those on the ground. The smoke and fire caused by the bombing from the lead aircraft created great difficulty to those following, as they had no clear sight of the chateau. Direct hits were also scored on a number of motor cars standing of the courtyard. A total of 800 rounds of ammunition were fired into the train. With the exception of one machine all returned safely. The aircraft flown by Lieutenant J.R. Zieman and his Observer 2nd Lieutenant J. Tannenbaum was seen to land under control near Cambrai, where they set fire to the aircraft to prevent it from falling into enemy hands. 

If the raid was an attempt to kill the Kaiser, it failed. Nevertheless the squadron still regarded the results as good. 

Bombing Raid Lindley and Watts carri d out further bombing and reconnaissance sorties in the days following. Between the 12th and the 15th June five attempts were made to photograph one particular area but because of bad weather the task was not successfully completed until the final day. On the 16th June a photographic reconnaissance was carried out over Renaix in appalling weather, consisting of low cloud, rain and hail. Even so, 52 exposures were possible. Being over the objective for a long period and flying low, they became the targets for enemy aircraft. 2 Pfalz Scouts attacked them. Fittingly, one was driven down and Lieutenants Lindley and Watts were able to return to Ruisseauville after a flight lasting 4 hours and 15 minutes.

On the 21st June Lieutenants Lindley and Watts had a one-hour engine and telephone test flight. Although they could not possibly have known it, this was the last time they were to fly together. Lieutenant Watts went on leave. When he returned his friend was dead. 

The last bombing raid by the Squadron was carried out on the railway station at Courtrai. Thereafter it was to devote itself entirely to long-range reconnaissance. On the morning of the 29th June Lieutenant Lindley and his Observer Lieutenant Boi took off for such an objective. They were to take photographs over Bruges. They did not return. As they were probably flying alone and so far behind enemy lines no one had any news of them. They were posted as missing in action. Lieutenant Lindley's family in South Africa waited anxiously. In mid August they received news that Lieutenant Boi was alive and a prisoner of war. They were hopeful once more. It was not until the 7th September that they discovered the truth. 

Whilst flying near the town of Bray, close to Bruges, the aircraft came under heavy anti-aircraft and ground fire. Lieutenant Lindley had flown in the same area the day before. His aircraft had been hit by shellfire and the undercarriage damaged, causing him to crash land on his return. On this occasion he was not so fortunate. The aircraft's elevation was shot away and it crashed. Both pilot and observer were
badly wounded. Lieutenant Lindley had received 2 bullet wounds to the head. They were taken to the German Naval Hospital at Bruges. Lieutenant Lindley died soon after arrival. He was 19 years old. 

Lieutenant Watts received the news of Lindley's loss when he returned to the Squadron. His log entries become low key. He did not settle again. His commanding officer took him up for a test flight. Was this to test his nerve? If it was he need not have worried. Between the 9th July and 10th August he flew with a variety of different pilots, undertaking 10 operational sorties. One can speculate that he derived a degree of grim satisfaction when, on the 16th July he recorded his shooting down of an enemy aircraft. He had settled his friend's debt. 

Lieutenant Watts returned to home establishment on 11th August 1918. His total time in France with the Squadron had been 4 months and 1 week. He had flown 50 combat sorties, comprising of 156 hours and 40 minutes operational time plus nearly another 20 hours flying. The furthest he had ventured over enemy lines was 87 miles, near Charleroi. The highest altitude he had achieved was 21,500 feet. He had
shot down 1 enemy aircraft and forced down 2 others. He had survived. 

After spending time with the Squadron in Germany as part of the Army of Occupation he was posted back to 2nd Battalion Queens Own Cameron Highlanders on the 26th March 1920. He relinquished his temporary commission in the RAF on 13th April 1920 and retired from service on 15th June 1920, about a month before his 29th birthday. 

Lieutenant Lindley was buried in the cemetery at Steenbrugge on the outskirts of Bruges. After the war he was reburied at Larch Wood (Railway Cutting) Cemetery near Ypres. It is a beautiful and peaceful place but, like so many young men, he is a long way from home. 

Lieutenant Watts died on the 27th July 1976 in Birmingham. He was in his 86th year. Ironically, as he was cremated, he has no marked grave. 

25 Squadron RAF still plays a full part in the defence of this country. It is now equipped with Tornado fighter-bombers, a far cry form the open cockpits and leather flying helmets of 1918. 


The authors would like to acknowledge the help and information provided by Major Antony Gordon, South African Defence Force (Retired); Commander "Mac" Bissett, South African Naval Base, Simonstown; the Royal Air Force Museum; Mr William Jervois, Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa; Mr Ian Webb; Mr Roy Watts; Mr Tom Tulloch-Marshall; Mr David Duffus; many members of
the World War One Discussion List (whether they realised it or not!) but in particular Mr Forrest Anderson and Mr Tom Morgan. 


The Flying Log of Lieutenant Archibald Roy Watts. 

The Army Service Record of Lieutenant A. R. Watts. 

The RAF Service Record of Lieutenant A. R. Watts. 

"The Sky Their Battlefield" by Trevor Henshaw, Grub Street. 

"Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918" by Owen Thetford, Putnam. 

" Bombers 1914-1919" Kenneth Munson, Blandford Press. 

" The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force and Commonwealth 1918-1988" by James J Halley 

"Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, an Illustrated History" by Brigadier Angus Fairrie, Queen's Own Highlanders Amalgamation Trustees, 1998. 

Extracted from:

Margaret Doig Letter

click here!!


Old Rattray Records including monumental inscriptions.

The Linen Industry in Blairgowie

Early Dundee Maps

Blairgowrie Tours


Jeannie Duffus

(webmaster's great great aunt who died in 1965)


Innes Duffus of Dundee found this Dundee newspaper article
from 1964. 

Click on image for more!!

Retake on Jack Duffus Weiss Ancestors

I never got all of Jack's pictures on the internet - so here they are!!

Click on here!!




Subject: why its been quiet
Date: Sat, 19 Aug 2000 19:06:31 +0100

Firstly, sorry for rushing away on the Saturday but Liam was getting tired so we called it a day. I would have come to say farewell but your hands were full. I would like to thank you for all you did for all Duffuses . I have never seen so many at once.  As for why I have not been in touch I because my TV  email service has not been working since the second week in July. The service only lets me send and receive emails in text form so I have no way to see any of the pictures. Maybe you could send them to my friends computer. The address I sent you a while back. Thanks. Willie.

---Open Email - Email on your tv with talk21---

Subject: Scotland 2000
Date: Fri, 25 Aug 2000 12:31:59 +0100
From: "Jack Le Brecht" <>
To: "davidduffus" <>

Dear David,

Thank you very much for sending the T-shirts which arrived during
the week, do we owe you anything for postage?

They are great. We have had an exciting summer, Scotland then Henry's
graduation in Environmental Science. Next month he starts his Masters which
will be in Environmental Impact Assessment and Auditing at the University of
East Anglia.Attached are 3 photographs. One of the castle, the other is a picture of Lower Drakesmyer farm in Boharm where our great great grandfather William farmed. I have also tried to send a copy of the 1851 census which shows all the family members, you will note that William was a widower, Ann his wife having died ? in childbirth. My great grandfather George was 6 years at the time. Also on the census is Jim, Peter and John Duffus's great grandfather William aged 14 years. It was very moving to visit land that our forefathers had farmed.

The sun has shone here in Cambridgeshire for three days now but tomorrow
heavy rain is forcast ! This is to be expected as this is a Bank holiday

Kindest regards to Dianne and Megan and yourself.





Click here for 1851 census information for William Duffus!!


Subject: family tree
Date: Sun, 13 Aug 2000 15:44:26 EDT

Dear David,

I came across your web page and it made me curious. I noticed your great,great grandfather was born in Dundee. My maiden name was Duffus, and I was born in  Dundee, as were my parents and grand- parents.We don't know much about our family history,so I would be interested in information regarding our surname.

Yours sincerely,
Wendy Rabbitt

Subject: Gidday David - curious about ring design
Date: Thu, 17 Aug 2000 13:14:05 +1100

Gidday David

I am Chris Duffus from Wollongong, Australia (actually from Wagga Wagga).
Excellent web site you have created. I actually searched the Debt Of Honour roll and discover that Christopher Duffus was killed in action in France in 1915!

It is a fantastic job that you have done, a lot of work.

I actually have a question. I am getting married in October this year. I have
been looking around for a wedding ring for myself - something a bit different
from the standard gold band. I have had a yarn to a few jewellers who can pretty
well create whatever I request (there is actually a mob that specialise in
Celtic designs). In the Duffus web site, when you click on the first page icon to enter the site. The next page is titled 'Duffus', with a 'celtic type design underlining it. My question is, "Is this a Duffus specific design?"
I would appreciate your help.

Either reply by email or my address is:
10 Caldwell Ave
Tarrawanna NSW 2518 Australia


Subject: Differs
Date: Fri, 18 Aug 2000 15:43:43 +0100
From: "Innes Duffus" <>
To: "David Duffus" <>


I have been looking through a small booklet giving the history of the village of Glamis. In it is a list of, and I quote "Janry 18 1705. List of the fencible men in the parochin of Airly belonging to the Earl of Strathmore is as follows:" Under the heading 'Brydestowne' is the name Daid Differs, (not a typing error, that is the spelling given). So far I have no idea what the connection with us might be, but it is very interesting, because as you know there is very little by way of a Duffus connection as early as that. If I find out more I shall let you know. I have also discovered a lady whose maiden name was Duffus and is now Leslie. She and her husband ran a hotel in the village of Weem, just outside Aberfeldy. I have been going there for around 30 years and have only just found out that she was a Duffus. Her son now owns the business and is on the net. I shall get his address and try to discover more. Again I will keep you informed of progress


Subject: family tree
Date: Sun, 20 Aug 2000 18:53:30 -0700
From: "anyaspop" <>
To: <>


 I have some additions to the family tree. Under Christine Regnir daughter of Timothy Regnir and Diane Mucci, her birthdate is 8/17/78. Also she Married Jamie McLaughlin on March 10, 2000. They have 2 daughters Anastasia Ryanne born 12/23/97 and Leah Rachel born 4/28/2000. These are all descendants of John Henderson Duffus. 

Subject: Ament
Date: Sun, 20 Aug 2000 14:54:07 -0400
From: "renee3331" <>
To: <>

Hi. Just got a pc was looking at you web site very nice talk to you soon 
Irene Ament

Subject: Re: James Duffus of Forgue Aberdeenshire, Scotland (James2) & Mor(r)ison Duffus
Date: Tue, 22 Aug 2000 00:34:38 -0400
From: "Louise Ross" <>
To: "davidduffus" <>

Dear David,

Congratulations, it looks like the 2000 Reunion was a huge success. We are following it from Canada and would have loved to have been there. We have pictures from the exact sites when we visited Scotland. 

FYI this may be the death record of our Morrison Duffus b 1816. In 1902 
she would have been 86 but 1816 may have been misread as 1810 and her age was recorded as 92. More proof that she was female not male.


Mortlach 162 12

Since writing the e-mail below there is a correction to the date of death of
Morrison Duffus' daughter Mary Dallas as stated below. The aunt's letter had said she died when her son James was 9, however she is still alive in the 1881  Census when her son James is 18. At 9 he was sent to live with his grandmother.

Further, the Scots Origins site had a death index entry for Mary Ross/Dallas aged 44, in Keith, 1883.

Thank you from our family for the visit ... J.R and Louise Ross 

Subject: Irene Ament
Date: Mon, 28 Aug 2000 19:57:54 -0400
From: "renee3331" <>
To: "davidduffus" <>

Dear David,

As you will find out I'm computer illiterate, hope all is well with all the family. I saw the picturesof the reunion in scotland I wish I knew who the people are. There are a number of my family to be added to our family tree. My daughter Patricia Mathney married Jack Vealey 9/27/97and her daughter Jennifer married RichardGlasser 10/3/98 they have a daughter MakenzieMarie born 4/25/00. Kelly Bowlin and Jamie have 3 more sons Wyatt b/7/28/96, Nathan b/12/18/98, Eli b/5/18/00. Amanda Regnier married Michael Chad Canington 7/3/99 have a son Michael Jeremiah b/7/1/00 also Shawn and Jen Ament have 2 more to add to the list Joshua 11/13/90 and Brian 4/18/96. Patty and I thought we would have been able to go to the reunion but circumstances said no. I am sending you a hand written letter. Time to sign off. 

As Always,


309-4900 Cartier Street

Vancouver, B.C.


August 9, 2000

Dear David,

Just writing your name makes me smile thinking of you, Diane, and Megan. All of us, I am sure are singing your praises for the fabulous effort made on our behalf. When I contemplate on the time that it must have taken to have achieved the end result it boggles my mind. Saying thank you is a gross understatement of my appreciation!

My Granddaughter gave me the picture you took at the museum. What a great invention the Internet was.

Finally arrived in Vancouver on July 31 and slept in my 13th bed. Very happy to be home and now look forward to seeing all of your, here, I hope, so I may return your hospitality.

My fondest good wishes to you, Diane and Megan.

Johnnie Duffus

23 Charlton Street
Nambucca Heads 2448
NSW Australia

Friday, 18 August, 2000

Dear David,

Just a few lines to bring you up to date on our family tree and to say what a wonderful job you did with the re-union and that we all had a wonderful few days. It spoilt up for our tour of rest of U.K. We’re sorry we stayed in Aberdeen on the Thursday night and missed some of the things you organized.

On Tuesday, 4 July we caught a coach from Aberdeen – London and on 7 July took off for a 22 day Trafalgar tour of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. Had a pretty good time. While in Edinburgh Margaret (our daughter-in-law) spent about 3 hours looking a birth, deaths, and marriages and came up with information we didn’t have before re-union. While in Glasgow we met up with Bobbie Duffus (Barry’s Father’s half-brother). He is 70 in November and not much older than us. We took them out to dinner with our tour (we only had one night in Glasgow) and had a lovely time. He told us that James was buried in Elgin Cathedral. He had a son Alexander who also has a son Alexander who then had Barry’s grandfather James. Margaret has all the dates and will e-mail you. We have tied in with one of Gordon’s Alexander’s but don’t know yet who else is closely related. It is all so exciting but I don’t know if we’ll manage it again. The flying knocked us around. Jet lag, sleeping patterns, swollen ankles etc. Barry got straight back into work with council and his Bananas. Hope you are keeping well. Our son Glenn has gone "on-line" so will probably e-mail you. His e-mail is

They have a daughter Caitun how will be 2 in November and they are hoping for another baby (maybe a Duffus to carry on name). Will keep in touch. Regards to you and your family.

Arlene Duffus

Saw web-site and looked at all photos and letters. Good job!

Lost my camera on coach to London from Aberdeen.

Subject: Mary Duffus and William Robertson
Date: Tue, 29 Aug 2000 14:05:59 -0400
From: "Kim Cooke" <>
To: <>

Hello David

I am looking for information on a Mary Duffus born in Cabrach Aberdeen. Not
sure of the year possibly the 1830s. Her husband was William Robertson and
they had a dau Alspeth born 1869. Alspeth was probably born in Cabrach or
close by. Mary and her husband are said to have been buried at Garioch. I
have also been told that Mary's father was the Mayor of Aberdeen and that
Mary was Bell of Lowerens (not sure of the spelling) Fair in 1846.

Do you have any information about this family or know of anyone who may be
able to help me out. Any information about this family would be greatly
Kim Cooke -

Past Issues

March 14, 1999

April 11, 1999

May 16, 1999

July 5, 1999

August 8, 1999

September 12, 1999

October 31, 1999

November 28, 1999

December 19, 1999

January 30, 2000

March 5, 2000

April 2, 2000

May 14, 2000

June 11, 2000

July 28, 2000

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Aa richts is pitten by. Nae pairt o this darg shuid be doobelt, hained in onie kin o
seestem, or furthset in onie kythin or bi onie gate whitsomeiver, athoot haein leave
frae the writer afore-haund. 

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